Everything About Image

Free Stuff

A gray card is a middle gray reference, typically used together with a reflective light meter, as a way to produce consistent image exposure and/or color in video production, film and photography.

A gray card is a flat object of a neutral gray color that derives from a flat reflectance spectrum. A typical example is the Kodak R-27 set, which contains one 8x10" card and one 4x5" card which have 18% reflectance across the visible spectrum, and a white reverse side which has 90% reflectance. Note that flat spectral reflectance is a stronger condition than simply appearing neutral; this flatness ensures that the card appears neutral under any illuminant.

Probably the most frequent complaint or cause for concern about a lens is that it's not sharp, but what does that mean? Well, unless you're shooting a static subject with the camera and lens on a tripod, it probably doesn't mean much. A lot of photographers don't realize that hand holding a camera (even if it or the lens has image stabilization), isn't the way to get the maximum possible sharpness. If the shutter speed is high enough and your hands are steady enough, you may get a critically sharp image, but don't bet on it happening every time.

SMPTE color bars are a trademarked television test pattern used where the NTSC video standard is utilized, including countries in North America. The Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers (SMPTE) refers to the pattern as Engineering Guideline EG 1-1990. Its components are a known standard. Comparing it as received to the known standard gives video engineers an indication of how an NTSC video signal has been altered by recording or transmission and what adjustments must be made to bring it back to specification. It is also used for setting a television monitor or receiver to reproduce NTSC chrominance and luminance information correctly.

The pattern was originally conceived by Norbert D. Larky and David D. Holmes of RCA Laboratories and first published in RCA Licensee Bulletin LB-819 on February 7, 1951. U.S. patent 2,742,525 Color Test Pattern Generator was awarded on April 17, 1956 to Norbert D. Larky and David D. Holmes.[1] Previously categorized by SMPTE as ECR 1-1978, its development was awarded an Engineering Emmy in 2001-2002.
A color chart or color reference card is a flat, physical object that has many different color samples present. They can be available as a single-page chart, or in the form of swatchbooks or color-matching fans.

Typically there are two different types of color charts:

Color reference charts are intended for color comparisons and measurements. Typical tasks for such charts are checking the color reproduction of an imaging system, aiding in color management or visually determining the hue of color. Examples are the IT8 and ColorChecker charts.
Color selection charts present a palette of available colors to aid the selection of spot colors, process colors, paints, pens, crayons, and so on – usually the colors are from a manufacturers product range. Examples are the Pantone and RAL systems.
The American Cinematographer Manual is a filmmaking manual published by the American Society of Cinematographers. Covering lighting, lenses, and film emulsions, it is considered “an authoritative technical reference manual for cinematographers.” The manual also defines the cinematography profession.

Publishing history
The first version was published in 1935 by Jackson J. Rose [fr] as The American Cinematographer Hand Book and Reference Guide. That handbook went through nine editions (1935, '38, '39, '42, '46, '47, '50, '53, '56) before it evolved into the American Cinematographer Manual. The first edition of the Manual was published in 1960. The book is now in its tenth edition (2015).

1960 October, First Edition (blue cover), ed. Joseph V. Mascelli, 484 pages.
1966 September, Second Edition (maroon cover), ed. Joseph V. Mascelli, 628 pages.
1969, Third Edition (brown cover), ed. Arthur C. Miller and Walter Strenge, 652 pages.
1973, Fourth Edition (black cover), ed. Charles G. Clarke and Walter Strenge, 658 pages.
1980, Fifth Edition (black cover), ed. Charles G. Clarke, 628 pages.
1986, Sixth Edition (red cover), ed. Fred H. Detmers, 440 pages.
1993, Seventh Edition (green cover, paperback), ed. Dr. Rod Ryan, 618 pages.
2001, Eighth Edition (blue cover), ed. Rob Hummel, 972 pages.
2004, Ninth Edition (black cover), ed. Stephen H. Burum, ASC, 919 pages.
2013, Tenth Edition, revised 2015 (maroon cover, paperback), ed. Michael Goi, ASC. 2 volumes: vol. 1, 504 pages; vol. 2, 582 pages.

The Filmmaker's Handbook:
A Comprehensive Guide for the Digital Age
For the first time since its publication in 1984, "The Filmmaker's Handbook" --the classic volume highlighting the techniques and technologies needed for the creation and production of movies--has been completely revised and updated. Written by filmmakers for filmmakers, this essential text now includes the latest information on digital age filmmaking, where the shifting boundaries between film, video, and computer systems have introduced a wide range of methods and equipment every filmmaker must master to be competitive. This comprehensive reference guide addresses the techniques necessary to make feature, documentary, industrial, and experimental films while detailing the possibilities and limitations of various formats. New chapters spotlight video camera and video editing, essential information for modern film students and makers who focus on video production exclusively. "The Filmmaker's Handbook" is the perfect primer to guide novices and professionals alike into the twenty-first century of motion picture production.